Sunday, June 25, 2006

Abby Week #3 Blog

Web Assignment #8

Propaganda has been used in almost every war to get citizens involved in the war efforts. That is exactly what this poster is attempting to do. The government wanted to win the war and this meant rationing important items, like food. Since there is was not enough meat during this time, the government is saying that "Men in the fighting forces naturally have first call on our meat supplies" (99 Ways to Share the Meat, pg 1). This shows that the American lifestyle at the time was completely focused around the war. Everyone, including the government was making sacrifices to help the war effort.
Children are always a vital part of every country for they are the ones that will one day take over the country. During the war, the government did not want any of the children to feel the affects of the war. The government believed that “to children in wartime the home is vital as a center of security and hope and love” (Children’s Charter, pg 3). I turn, the government also did not want children to affect the soldiers and believed that “broken working time due to sickness of the worker or his wife or child” (Children’s Charter, pg 3) was not good for the war. So the government made sure there were plenty of doctors for the families of those working to produce war products.
The American governmet was offering housewives a way to get involved in the war effort. First of all, if they brought in their cooking fats they would get extra rations points. Second of all for every pound of produce they brought in they could receive “up to 4 cents for each pound” (A War Job, pg 2). The fat could be used to help make “millitary, industrial, and civilian soaps” (A War Job, pg 4). It also could be used to make “Marine Rope” (A War Job, pg 4). Basically, the government could take the lefover cooking fat and make many products out of it that would help the war effort.
The bulletin adressed the issue that the government “turned our factories into arsenals” (Guns, pg 3). The factories were all changing to produce products that could be used in the war. The workers were also having to learn new jobs. This meant learning how to use the new machines to make the products. The workers were having to give up being able to by “automobiles, washing machines ad the other usefull implements of a high-standread-of-living nation” (Guns, pg 18). Since the factories were no longer making these products the American people could no longer buy them. The government was telling the citizens about their policies but told them that the changes need to start with them. It had to come from the cities and the small towns. This propaganda was crucial during the war effort. The government did not want to upset the workers and force them to go on strike because they need to produce the products to win the war. These brochures helped to inform the citizens and get them to understand why changes were made for the war effort.
The American government was concerned about the war and knew that a strong economy was needed to win the war. The government knew that the economy during the depression could not support the war. The civilian buying needed to decrease and the production needed to increase. The government considered any American with a job as part of the “Labor”. The government believed that organized labor was important in the war effort. The national idea suggestedthat “we must raise out sights all along the production line. Let no many say it cannot be done. It must be done- and we have undertaken to do it” (Labor, pg 9). The government wanted everyone to work hard and accomplish every task. They also believed in organized labor. They believed that “organized labor is democracy itself” (Labor, pg 8). Basically all of the groups or unions pledged themselves to the war effort and agreed they would not go on strike. The government, as well as civilians, all knew that the labor force was a vital aspect of winning the war.

Web Assignment #9

Each one of these articles relates specifically to an important event leading up to the Cold War. The “Iron Curtain” is a term that was spoken by Winston Churchill in his 1946 speech. The "Iron Curtain" is a term referring to the boundary which divided Europe into two separate areas. This division happened after World War II and did not end until the end of the Cold War. Winston Churchill describes the divide by saying, “from Stettin in the Baltic to Trieste in the Adriatic an iron curtain has descended across the Continent” (Iron Curtain, pg 1). Europe had been divided into two powerful areas and all of Europe was not united. Churchill gave his speech to a group of Americans at Westminster College in Fulton, Missouri. He was trying to show them the importance of Europe being united with no one country in power. This speech is very significant because not only is it regarded to this say as a very influential speech but it also had opposition at the time. Many people did not like the speech and saw it as Churchill trying to build an alliance against the Soviet Union and the American people did not like this. It is also significant because Churchill ask for a strong stand against communism, "There is nothing they admire so much as strength, and there is nothing for which they have less respect than for weakness, especially military weakness" (Iron Curtain, pg 2). In the end this speech was very important because it made the issue of communism a world wide issue and stated to bring together anti-communist countries. The Truman Doctrine was also an important document for it allowed the United State to give support to any nation that could be taken over by communism. They were particularly interested in helping Turkey and Greece. Even though the United State did not directly say that they were fighting against USSR expansion, “there could be no mistaking his identification of the Communist state as the source of much of the unrest throughout the world” (Truman Doctrine, pg 1). The American government wanted to be able to help these countries after Britain was unable to help them and so Truman asked for $400 million to help these countries out. This document is significant because it makes the United States a country that will help out other countries and also makes the United States a strong country against communism. The next significant document is the Marshall Plan. The Marshall Plan, was developed by the European Recovery Program to help rebuild Western Europe. The plan “authorizes the expenditure in the next twelve months of $6,098,000,000 to provide economic assistance to the sixteen nations of Western Europe along with Western Germany, as well as economic and military aid to China, Greece and Turkey” (The Marshall Plan, pg 1). This is very important for it gave money to many of the countries the United States was fighting against to rebuild and start over. The United States also hoped this would help in ending the spread of communism to these countries. The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) was also a significant document at the time. NATO was a “grand Alliance of the non-Communist Western world… intent on pooling their defenses against Russia” (NATO “New Crisis”). NATO was very significant because the uniting of several governments against communism (Russia) made the war seem more like it might happen. It also forced the Russian’s to sign the Warsaw Pact, a treaty, with Eastern European communist countries. The last significant event that leads to the Cold War is the Domino Theory. The Domino Theory was a foreign policy theory started by President Eisenhower and was used by many Americans. This theory stated that if one country came under the control of Communist then more would also fall under the influence; it would be a domino effect. This saying is very important because many American citizens believed that this was true and partially led to the Red Scare and other American fears of Communism.
The name for the cold war came from a journalist named Walter Lippmann. Lippmann was an American journalist who generated the term in his 1947 book. Lippmann means when he says “Cold War” that the USSR and the World War I allies where getting to a point of war but there had been no warfare. Basically, it was a war without any military combat but rather a build up of weapons and power. This war also used a lot of espionage as both the United States and Russia’s international intelligence agencies flourished. The rivalries between the nations lead to the forming of allies and several foreign policy agendas. The cold war also led to the arms race which was a race to collect military weapons.
There was no millitary battles in the Cold War like there was in the World Wars, however, there was deffinetly non combat battles. During the Cold War the major battlefields were between government offices. There was a race to form weapons and this could also be consider a “battlefield” during the war. The Cuban Missel Crissis could also be considered a battle for it was a “combat” between the United States and Russia. Another “battlefeild” was the race to see who could get to space first. Finally, the Korean War came about because of the Cold War. In the end the war was not about millitaries but more about advancements and see who could succede in politics, inventions and expansion.
During the Cold War, domestic policies and events were very much affected. The red scare spread through the country and everyone was accusing somone of being a communist. People lived in fear that once again the United States would go to war. The country believed that if war did break out that it would be the end of the world. In schools they wuld practice bomb drills and people also beuilt shelters. Everyone was preparing for the war. This also help to drive the tensions abroad since the entire country was preparing for war.

Web Assignment #10

The Civil Rights movement was a very passionate time for African Americans and song was a great way for them to get their feelings across. When the Africans Americans were being segregated it was very hard for them to get there feelings across. However, you can not help but hear someone when they are singing. The African Americans could sing as they marched, rode the bus or even as they were hauled off to jail. Music not only helped to get their point across but it also helped them when times where bad and they need to be feel better. Some of the music was uplifting and could assist them on days they did not feel like they were accomplishing anything. Music was also an important part of African Americans culture. The songs also nourished their spirituality. In the song “We Shall Overcome,” they continue to sing, “Deep in my heat know that I do believe we shall overcome this someday, God is on our side.” They are helping to encourage each other by singing and ensuring each other they will overcome the prejudice held against them. I am not sure if I remember what Bernice Reagon said, but I believe she might have been talking about how the African Americans had difficulty getting their message out but no one could stop them from sing. They used song to help get people to listen and understand their hardships.
The African Americans wanted the federal government to step in and help with oppression in the Unites States. The country had help to give many people their freedom yet they were treating a large part of the population the same way. They African Americans also believed that the force used was unlawful. Lewis Williams said, "I fought in World War II, and I once was captured by the German army, and I want to tell you that the Germans never were as inhuman as the state troopers of Alabama" (Bloody Sunday, pg 2). The federal government needed to go in and help with the excess violence being used. They were not protecting their own people from the corrupt local governments. Eventually, the federal government did step in and help to stop the violence and make sure the United States laws were being upheld.
Both Martin Luther King and Malcolm X wanted in general the same thing, African American rights. However, Malcolm X and the Black Panthers have different techniques to get what they wanted. They did not believe that the white Americans were worth getting along with. He believe they were corrupt and beneath the African Americans. The Black Panthers used excess force against the police and other whites to get what they wanted. Unlike, Martin Luther Kings peaceful tactics, these extremist used full force to get what they wanted.
Many Mexican Americans were having to live in very horrible conditions for it was hard for them to find work and keep it. Cesar Cahvez helped the impoverished farmers and did what “most labor leaders considered [Chavez's goal of creating the first successful union of farm workers in U.S. history] an impossible dream. Farm laborers suffered from high rates of illiteracy and poverty (average family earnings were just $2,000 in 1965), they also experienced persistently high rates of unemployment (traditionally around nineteen percent) and were divided into a variety of ethnic groups: Mexican, Arab, Filipino, and Puerto Rican” (Cesar Chavez, pg 1). The Mexican Americans at the time were suffering from all of these problems, illiteracy, poverty and unemployment. The Mexican American farmers were really suffering and needed help to improve their lives.
The Mexican Americans, like the African Americans, united to fight for their rights. They started out by winning an election and taking controll of the city council in a small texas town. “The Crystal City election marked the beginning of a new era of Mexican American political power and influence” and helped them to continue on in their fight for equal rights (The Sleeping Giant, pg 1). Although they were fighting for equal rights, their “battle” was very different then that of the African Americans. The Mexican Americans did not have the same kind of violence against them as the African Americans did. They also did not have as strict segregation laws as the African Americans had. Even thought the Mexican Americans struggle was not as difficulty does not mean it was not hard. In fact the Mexican Americans had to endure many hardships and had to deal with the poverty that affected many Mexican Americans.
The Native Americans were also fighting for their rights during this time. However, they wanted slightly different things. The Native Americans wanted to bring back the honor to their people as well as some of their land that was taken years earlier. The Native Americans did not want to use violence but instead used politics. Unlike the African Americans, the Native Americans did not make a big spectacle. They instead made treaties and used their political connections to get what they wanted. The Native Americans wanted the island of Alcatraz because they believed that an earlier treaty gave it to them. However, they did not want to take over the island from the people that live there but instead said, “we wish to be fair and honorable in our dealings with the Caucasian inhabitants of this land, and hereby offer the following treaty” (Seizure, pg 1). The Native Americans went about getting what they wanted in a very political and peaceful way.
The clips do not give both sides of the story. There is not any information about the Native Americans view of what happened. The Native Americans in the clips are not portrayed in a good light. They talk about how they are violent and refer to the Native Americans as Indians. This already makes one see that the story is going to be bias. They briefly talk about what the Native Americans want, the historical site, but do not really talk a lot about this important issue. The article seems to be unfair even though it is supposed to be objective. They just completely focus on the negative aspects of the Native Americans and the positive aspects of the government. This historical site was important to the Native Americans because it was were the United States massacred a large group of Indians.
Power and Participation and Vissions and Collisions are both seen in this era. Power and Participation is seen in both World War II and the Cold War. The governments in both wars were fighting for power and needed the participation of the citizens to help. Esspeccailly during the Cold War, the United States was in a race with the Soviet Union for power, Wether it was the arms race or the space race, both countries wanted the power. So they needed their citizens to participate in the advancements. Vissions and Collissions also are important in this age. Many different groups were fighting for eqaul rights, whether it was the Native Americans, Mexican Americans, or the African Americans. All of these groups had a different vission of their rights then the government and white Americans did. Since they had a different vission, a collision accured between these groups and the government. They all fought for their rights and wanted their vission to become a reality.

I have thought about the above historical evidence, and I have come to the following conclusions. The American government wanted to fight for equal rights all over the world except in the United States itself. The government joined World War II and fought for the equal rights of the Jewish people. However, back at home many of the countries own citizens were not receiving this right. The country finally realized that before it fixed any more countries problems they had to fix their own and so the Civil Rights Movement started. The country fought on and eventually was able to truly say that it was a country of freedom. After the country figured out their own equal rights problems they could truly encourage other countries to give their citizens equal rights as well.

3 Comments:

At 3:05 PM, Blogger lucas said...

Comment #1

I wondered when I heard Truman's "Domino Theory" how accurate it was. You said in your blog "This theory stated that if one country came under the control of Communist then more would also fall under the influence; it would be a domino effect. This saying is very important because many American citizens believed that this was true and partially led to the Red Scare and other American fears of Communism." Although this seems somewhat plausible, I don't believe that it was a completely accurate statement. It was true that countries such as Russia were able to spread Communism into countries that have had problems, but over the years it hasn't spread like an epidemic. China is communistic, as is Cuba, North Korea, and various others. The advent of Communism in these countries was not an infection that spread to all surrounding regions. Communism to this day is very isolated. I think this was more an overstatement by our government than anything.

 
At 12:10 PM, Anonymous Anonymous said...

Although the spread of Communism through the "domino theory" may have been overstated in retrospect, it is impoortant to remember that political leaders, and the general public informed by them, truly believed that the domino theory was an imminent danger throughout the Cold War. This concern did affect the development of US and world history in the latter half of the 20th century in significant ways. You might consider the development of American relations with Latin America, particularly Cuba, if you have the time to investigate in a focused manner. Without the fear of Communist expansion, how would these relations have developed differently? Where might American diplomatic efforts been realigned? This is a complex issue open to interpretation and individual perspective, but you might question how the fear of the spread of Communism affected American perceptions of the Third World, both for diplomatic purposes and public opinion/response. Is it possible to make an arguement that the "Domino Theory" has continued repercussions on current diplomatic policy?

 
At 10:55 PM, Blogger H. McLure said...

Abby,

An excellent entry with many good points supported by well-chosen quotes from the sources.

Your analysis of the "Guns not Gadgets" bulletin is especially good, and this passage was particuarly compelling: "The government was telling the citizens about their policies but told them that the changes need to start with them. It had to come from the cities and the small towns. This propaganda was crucial during the war effort. The government did not want to upset the workers and force them to go on strike because they need to produce the products to win the war." I think you have identified several crucial messages in this document, especially the emphasis on citizen accepatance of the war effort. Why would this be particularly important in terms of the competing ideologies of this war?

Your discussion of the Cold War documents does a nice job of not only describing Churchill's speech, but the reaction it aroused. You also succinctly and accurately describe the nature and significance of the other sources and some of the domestic effects of the Cold War. However, you should have been a bit more specific here, and mentioned concrete examples such as Joseph McCarthy's Senate hearings or the McCarran "Communist Control Act" of 1954.

Your analysis of the Civil Rights music is sensitive and compelling: "When the Africans Americans were being segregated it was very hard for them to get there feelings across. However, you can not help but hear someone when they are singing." You continue with this thought about Bernice Reagon's statement during the film, "I believe she might have been talking about how the African Americans had difficulty getting their message out but no one could stop them from singing." Yes, that was almost exactly what she said, that she and the other protesters gained power from their singing, that they forced the police and others to hear them.

You do an equally good job in your discussions of the remainder of the sources in this assignment. As you can see, your Entry also resulted in an interesting comment by Lucas, as well as a thought-provoking response to Lucas's comment by one of our visitors.

 

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